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By Pierre Grangeat

The main of tomography is to discover the constitution and composition of gadgets non-destructively alongside spatial and temporal dimensions, utilizing penetrating radiation, resembling X- and gamma-rays, or waves, akin to electromagnetic and acoustic waves. according to computer-assisted photograph reconstruction, tomography offers maps of parameters that symbolize the emission of the hired radiation or waves, or their interplay with the tested items, for one or numerous cross-sections. therefore, it supplies entry to the interior constitution of inert gadgets and residing organisms of their complete complexity. during this booklet, multidisciplinary experts clarify the rules and rules of tomographic imaging and describe a huge variety of functions. The content material is geared up in 5 elements, that are devoted to picture reconstruction, microtomography, business tomography, morphological scientific tomography and useful scientific tomography.

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Tomography

The primary of tomography is to discover the constitution and composition of items non-destructively alongside spatial and temporal dimensions, utilizing penetrating radiation, akin to X- and gamma-rays, or waves, comparable to electromagnetic and acoustic waves. in keeping with computer-assisted picture reconstruction, tomography offers maps of parameters that signify the emission of the hired radiation or waves, or their interplay with the tested gadgets, for one or numerous cross-sections.

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When the statistical fluctuation of the measurements becomes important, as in emission tomography, it is preferable to explicitly describe the images and measurements statistically, following the principle of statistical methods. The solution is expressed as a statistical estimation problem. In the case of weakly ill-posed problems, Bayesian estimators corresponding to the minimization of a composite criterion have been proposed. They choose the solution with the highest probability for the processed measurement, or on average for all measurements, taking the measurements and the a priori information about the object into account.

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In this book, we are mainly interested in calculated, or computer-aided, tomography, in which the final image of the spatial distribution of a parameter is calculated from measurements of the radiation that is emitted, transmitted, or reflected by the object. In combination with the electronic measurement system, the processing of the collected information thus plays a crucial role in the production of the final image. Tomography complements the range of imaging instruments dedicated to observation, such as radar, sonar, lidar, echograph, and seismograph.

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