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By Paul Brooker (auth.)

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None of the other Communist defiant dictatorships would show such instability within its regime leadership, let alone face such serious 42 Defiant Dictatorships discontent and opposition from its society. On the other hand, the Chinese regime, unlike so many Communist regimes, had at least survived. And it had also avoided the dramatic political restructuring that had recently been forced upon the Burmese dictatorship by the student and worker protests of mid-1988 - namely, the retirement from public life of Party Chairman Ne Win, the abandonment of the BSPP party-state fagade, and the establishment of open military rule by a junta, the State Law and Order Restoration Council.

85 In fact, coastal cities envious of the benefits accruing from foreign investment in the SEZs had actively sought to be classified as 'open' (to foreign investment) cities, and inland areas had sought to have the openness policy extended to them. 87 Internationalisation of the economy would involve many other measures than simply opening up the economy to foreign investment. Among them were: devolving the state monopoly of foreign trade onto several thousand competing trading companies; allowing some enterprises as well as local governments to deal directly with foreigners and retain some foreign exchange earnings; making frequent devaluations of the official exchange rate; and transforming the black market currency exchange into a semiofficial swap market.

First the younger and more radical members of this deeply divided collective leadership were removed from power: the politically radical Hu Yaobang at the beginning of 1987 and the economically Communist China 27 radical Zhao Ziyang in the middle of 1989. ) Then the Party elders within the collective leadership lost an increasing amount of their influence in the 1990s as Deng's standing reached a new height and they suffered from the debilitating effects of their venerable age. 10 Whatever remained of a collective leadership accompanying Deng's individual leadership was coming, almost by default, to be dominated by the 'younger generation' of Party leaders, who held the regime's key formal posts of General Secretary, Premier, and membership of the Politburo.

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