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By Geoffrey H. Sperber

Contemporary advances in genetics, molecular biology, diagnostic imaging and surgical options require a considerable knowing of prenatal improvement morphogenesis. The scientific importance of the traditional mechaniisms of embyogenesis, devlopmental mess ups and consequent craniofacial anomalies is of accelerating trouble to plastic and orofacial surgeons, otolarygologists, orthodontists, neonatal pediatricians and speech pathologists. Clinicians facing malformations desiring comprehension of the exponential enlargement of knowledge on molecular genomics, dysgenesis, teratology and the etiology of the syndromes and anomalies are served through this book's succinct contents. whereas delivering clinicians with a easy historical past for treating craniofacial anomalies, this article is going to additionally attract eratologists, embryologists and anatomists.

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The frontal portion of the prominence between the eyes forms the forehead; at the inferolateral corners, thickened ectodermal nasal (olfactory) placodes arise (Fig. 3–5). These placodes become the olfactory epithelium and develop the underlying olfactory nerves. The placodes invaginate by the elevation of inverted horseshoe-shaped ridges, the FNP FNP MAX ST MAN MAN HY PG HY FG RC Figure 3–4 Scanning electron micrographs of the head region of a 26-day-old human embryo. The central stomodeum (ST) is bordered by the frontonasal prominence (FNP) above, the maxillary (MAX) prominences laterally, and the mandibular (MAN) prominences inferiorly.

2–17 and 2–18). *Proteoglycans (procollagen) and collagen secreted by the notochord induce the conversion of somite sclerotomal cells into cartilage. 27 28 Craniofacial Development The extremely complex and rapid basic organogenesis taking place during the 10-day somite period makes the embryo exceedingly susceptible to environmental disturbances that may produce permanent developmental derangements. Maternal illnesses, particularly of viral origin, and irradiation and drug therapy during the first trimester of pregnancy (which includes the somite period of development) are well known in obstetric practice to be the cause of some congenital anomalies of the fetus.

3–6 and 3–7). These pits are precursors of the anterior nares; the pits are initially in continuity with the stomodeum. Union of the facial prominences occurs by either of two developmental events at different locations: merging of the frontonasal, maxillary, and mandibular prominences or fusion of the central maxillonasal components. Merging of what are initially incompletely separated prominences occurs as the intervening grooves disappear as a result of migration into and/or proliferation of underlying mesenchyme in the groove.

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