Download Computer Networks ISE: A Systems Approach, Fourth Edition by Larry L. Peterson, Bruce S. Davie PDF

By Larry L. Peterson, Bruce S. Davie

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13, defines a partitioning of network functionality into seven layers, where one or more protocols implement the functionality assigned to a given layer. 13 is not a protocol graph, per se, but rather a reference model for a protocol graph. The ISO, usually in conjunction with a second standards organization known as the International Telecommunications Union (ITU),1 publishes a series of protocol specifications based on the OSI architecture. 500, and so on. Starting at the bottom and working up, the physical layer handles the transmission of raw bits over a communications link.

The source may need to fragment the message into several packets, with the receiver reassembling the packets back into the original message. In other words, each flow sends a sequence of packets over the physical link, with a decision made on a packet-by-packet basis as to which flow’s packet to send next. Notice that if only one flow has data to send, then it can send a sequence of packets back-to-back. However, should more than one of the flows have data to send, then their packets are interleaved on the link.

Consider the following two examples of how a collection of computers can be indirectly connected. 3 shows a set of nodes, each of which is attached to one or more pointto-point links. Those nodes that are attached to at least two links run software that forwards data received on one link out on another. If organized in a systematic way, these forwarding nodes form a switched network. There are numerous types of switched networks, of which the two most common are circuit-switched and packet-switched.

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