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By Matthias Reumann

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Extra info for Computer Assisted Optimisation of Non-Pharmacological Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure and Supraventricular Arrhyth

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5 − 2 nm, the gap junctions cause a low electrical resistance between adjacent cells. These channels form the interconnection between cardiomyocytes not only electrically but also mechanically. They are mostly located at the intercalated discs, the coupling region of cells, which are mainly situated at the ends of the myocyte. The gap junctions transverse a gap of 2 − 3 nm between the membranes of adjacent cells. Their length is between 2 − 12 nm. Their barrel shaped structure is held up by two connexons, one of each cell.

During depolarisation, the N a+ /Ca2+ exchanger operates in reverse mode, i. e. the direction of ion flow changes both for N a+ ions and Ca2+ ions. This specific exchanger is called antiport because the exchange of ions is carried out in opposite direction to the driving force (in this case generated by the N a+ ion gradient). 2. 10. Schematic description of a N a+ /K + pump [70]. Three N a+ ions are pumped against the chemical gradient to the outside of the cell in one cycle. At the same time, two K + ions will be transported from the extracellular space into the cell against the K + ion concentration gradient.

Many factors contribute to the development and progression of AF [124, 159, 210, 211, 114, 71]. The pathophysiology is described in this section. 1. 30 Chapter 4. 1 Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is described by very fast and chaotic excitation of the atria which leads to a loss of mechanical contraction of the atria and non-physiological contraction of the ventricles. Age, diet, neurohormones and inflammation as well as cardiovascular diseases, structural and physiological changes, genetics and the autonomic nervous system have an influence on the initiation and maintenance of AF [159, 210, 211].

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