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By University of Cambridge. Institute of Criminology

Group consequences are punishments that, within the courts' sentencing tariff, come among imprisonment and fines. They comprise digital tagging, supervised unpaid paintings, and obligatory participation through offenders in therapy programmes. contemporary years have obvious many adjustments in England within the box of group consequences. those have integrated the fast improvement of authorized offending behaviour programmes, and a few new court docket orders corresponding to the Referral Order for juveniles, in keeping with the rules of restorative justice. Organisationally, too, the 12 months 2001 sees an enormous swap with the identify. learn more... disguise; Copyright web page; Contents; 1 creation: the modern scene for group consequences; 2 group consequences in historic standpoint; three group consequences within the context of up to date social swap; four past cognitive-behaviourism? Reflections at the effectiveness literature; five Compliance and group consequences; 6 Making 'What Works' paintings: demanding situations within the supply of group consequences; 7 responsibility within the supply of group consequences: to whom, for what, and why?; eight responsibility: distinction and variety within the supply of neighborhood consequences. nine expertise and the way forward for group penalties10 neighborhood consequences and social intergration: 'community as resolution and as challenge; eleven What destiny for 'public protection' and 'restorative justice' in a approach of neighborhood penalties?; 12 Concluding reflections; Appendix: Key conclusions; Index

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It was mindful of the rising costs of imprisonment and emphasised the need to keep young adult offenders out of custody, but it was equally mindful of rising crime rates, and proposed what it saw as a ‘sentencing structure best suited to protect the public and reduce future offences’ (ibid: para 4). That said, Younger’s key recommendation for a supervision and control order, a tougher version of a probation order (adapted from California), which would not require the offender’s consent, and would permit short periods of temporary detention (up to 72 hours for recalcitrant offenders), was a step too far even for the minority in the Probation Service who accepted the Advisory Council’s premise that some young adult offenders were now too intransigent for conventional probation.

References Advisory Council on the Penal System (1970) Non-Custodial and Semi-Custodial Penalties. London: HMSO. Advisory Council on the Penal System (1974) Young Adult Offenders. London: HMSO. Advisory Council on the Penal System (1977) The Length of Prison Sentences. London: HMSO. Advisory Council on the Penal System (1978) Sentences of Imprisonment: A Review of Maximum Penalties. London: HMSO. Advisory Council on the Treatment of Offenders (1957) Alternatives to Short Terms of Imprisonment. London: HMSO.

Harvey, L. and Pease, K. (1989) ‘Variations in Punishment in England and Wales’, in D. Evans and D. Herbert (eds) The Geography of Crime. London: Routledge. Haxby, D. (1978) Probation: A Changing Service. London: Constable. Hobsbawm, E. (1997) On History. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson. Home Office (1965) The Child, the Family and the Young Offender, Cmnd. 2742. London: HMSO. Home Office (1968) Children in Trouble, Cmnd. 3601. London: HMSO. Home Office (1977) A Review of Criminal Justice Policy 1976.

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