Download Cognitive Illusions: A Handbook on Fallacies and Biases in by Rüdiger F Pohl PDF

By Rüdiger F Pohl

Cognitive Illusions investigates quite a lot of interesting mental results within the manner we expect, pass judgement on and take into account in our daily lives. firstly of every bankruptcy, best researchers within the box introduce the heritage to phenomena similar to illusions of regulate, overconfidence and hindsight bias. this can be by way of an evidence of the experimental context during which those illusions should be investigated and a theoretical dialogue drawing conclusions in regards to the wider implications of those fallacy and bias results.

Written with researchers and teachers in brain, this tightly edited, reader-friendly textual content offers either an outline of analysis within the region and lots of full of life pedagogic positive factors reminiscent of bankruptcy summaries, extra interpreting lists and recommendations for lecture room demonstrations.

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Extra info for Cognitive Illusions: A Handbook on Fallacies and Biases in Thinking, Judgement and Memory

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Applying the wrong probabilistic rule While some researchers have claimed that posing problems in terms of frequencies facilitates adherence to the conjunction rule, others have claimed that the manner in which many of the problems are framed makes it unclear whether the conjunction rule is the appropriate rule to apply. Wolford et al. (1990) argue that in problems like the Linda one, the participant may believe that one of the statements is actually true and that instead of evaluating the probability of the statement, participants are actually evaluating the probability of Linda’s description given the statement – that is, instead of evaluating P(feminist and bank teller | Linda) and P(bank teller | Linda) participants are actually evaluating P(Linda | feminist and bank teller) and P(Linda | bank teller) (see Chapter 3).

25 Since a normal pack of playing cards contains four different suits, hearts, diamonds, clubs, and spades, each suit would be equally likely to be cut from the pack. Therefore you would have a 25% chance of drawing clubs, a 25% chance of spades, a 25% chance of hearts and a 25% chance of diamonds, so the answer is 25 chances in 100 as written above. Please read the following statement: Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very bright. At university she studied philosophy. As a student she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

Borgida, E. (1984). The conjunction fallacy: A task specific phenomenon? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 10, 243–252. Shackle, G. L. S. (1969). Decision, order and time in human affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Stanovich, K. , & West, R. F. (2000). Individual differences in reasoning: Implications for the rationality debate? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 645–726. Teigen, K. , & Frydenlund, R. (1999). Judgements of risk and probability: The role of frequentistic information.

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