Download Causal Learning - Psychology, Philosophy and Computation by Alison Gopnik, Laura Schulz PDF
By Alison Gopnik, Laura Schulz
Figuring out causal constitution is a vital activity of human cognition. Causal studying underpins the advance of our ideas and different types, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for making plans, mind's eye and inference. over the last few years, there was an interdisciplinary revolution in our realizing of studying and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have chanced on new mechanisms for studying the causal constitution of the realm. This new paintings offers a rigorous, formal foundation for conception theories of techniques and cognitive improvement, and furthermore, the causal studying mechanisms it has exposed pass dramatically past the conventional mechanisms of either nativist theories, corresponding to modularity theories, and empiricist ones, similar to organization or connectionism.
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Extra info for Causal Learning - Psychology, Philosophy and Computation
The subject is thus in the position of learning through passive observation rather than active intervention, and what is learned is that one stimulus predicts another, where this predictive relationship may or may not reflect the fact that the first stimulus causes the second. By way of contrast, in instrumental conditioning what is learned is an association between some behavior produced by the subject and an outcome, as when rats learn an association between pressing a lever and the provision of a food pellet.
47). The interventionist theory described in the next section is a version of a counterfactual theory; the counterfactuals in question describe what would happen to E under interventions (idealized manipulations of) on C. The interventionist theory does not require (although it permits) thinking of counterfactuals in terms of possible worlds and, as noted below, the specification of what sorts of changes count as interventions plays the same role as the similarity metric in Lewis’s theory. When causal information is represented by directed graphs as in Bayes net representations, these may be given Broadly speaking, recent philosophical accounts of causation may be grouped into two main approaches: difference-making and causal process theories.
Whether this analysis is accepted, it seems clear, as a more general point, that whatever the apes’ grasp of notions like weight and rigidity, they do not understand their causal relevance to the tasks with which they are dealing and cannot integrate these notions into causal representations that successfully guide action in connection with those tasks. ) or an inability to recognize particular instances of such a process in the system of interest. As noted in the section entitled Additional Features of Interventionism, grasp notion of a causal process is not sufficient for the sort of detailed knowledge of dependency relationships that is required for successful manipulation in tasks like balancing boxes or extracting food from a tube.