Download Carbon nanotubes: properties and applications by Michael J. O'Connell PDF

By Michael J. O'Connell

Carbon Nanotubes takes a vast examine CNTs and the instruments used to check them. It opens with a basic creation to the fundamental features and the heritage of CNTs, by means of discussions on synthesis tools and the expansion of "peapod" constructions. assurance then strikes to digital houses and band buildings of single-wall nanotubes (SWNTs), magnetic houses, Raman spectroscopy of digital and chemical habit, and electromechanical houses and functions in NEMS. Turning to purposes, the ultimate sections of the ebook discover mechanical houses of SWNTs spun into fibers, sidewall functionalization in composites, and utilizing SWNTs as guidance for scanning probe microscopes"

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Depending on the carbon feedstock, Mo and Ru are sometimes added as promoters to render the feedstock more active for the formation of CNTs. CVD, HiPco, and flame synthesis are considered thermal CNT synthesis methods. 32 The CVD process encompasses a wide range of synthesis techniques, from the gram-quantity bulk formation of nanotube material to the formation of individual aligned SWCNTs on SiO2 substrates for use in electronics. 13 Additionally, CVD in its various forms produces SWCNT material of higher atomic quality and higher percent yield than the other methods currently available and, as such, represents a significant advance in SWCNT production.

Virtually all growth methods dilute the active carbon species in argon, hydrogen, nitrogen, helium, or some mixture of these four, which provides yet another degree of freedom. 17 The use of etching gases, such as H2O, OH, or O2, to improve growth properties is still in its infancy and is doubtless to be the next major step toward cheap and reliable production of SWCNTs. 3 Catalyst A wide variety of catalytic species can be used to produce SWCNTs in CVD growth. It is important at this point to note that the word catalyst is used somewhat indiscriminately in nanotube science, whether or not the “catalyst” actually remains in its original form after making a nanotube.

An arc is produced across a 1-mm gap between two graphite electrodes 5 to 20 mm in diameter. An inert gas such as He or Ar is used as the atmosphere for the reaction, at a pressure of 100 to 1000 torr. 5 He found that nanotubes formed on the cathode, along with soot and fullerenes. Iijima and Ichihashi and Bethune et al. 10,11 Both Iijima and Bethune found that SWCNTs could only form by adding metal catalyst to the anode; specifically, Iijima used an Fe:C anode in a methane:argon environment, while Bethune utilized a Co:C anode with a He environment.

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