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Extra resources for Biodiversity in the Balance: Mitigation and Adaptation Conflicts and Synergies

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2008), but they can also provide cover for many farmland bird and insect species (DEFRA, 2005b) and reduce soil erosion which would have negative effects on local biodiversity (DEFRA, 2005a). , 2007; Orłowskia and Czarnecka, 2007). 2 Water management Irrigation and drainage can improve productivity in seasonally waterlogged fields and in some circumstances reduce N2O emissions. , 2005). , 2008) which all indirectly affect biodiversity. Direct effects Chapter 2. , 2006). , 2001). The creation of new reservoirs to cope with increased irrigation may have mixed benefits (Chapter 4).

The adoption of either spring or winter sown crops could have beneficial effects depending upon location and the addition of other management prescriptions. , 2005). , 2005). 11 Bioenergy crop production In recent years there has been a proliferation of studies advocating bioenergy schemes for climate change mitigation. 6 million hectares of agricultural land were used for biomass production in 2005 (EEA, 2007). The range of biomass crops and production processes is quite varied although the end use for the energy is normally only for heat production, electricity or transport fuel.

In Portugal can have major effects on water flow as well as biodiversity (resulting from toxic leaf leachates) in streams (Canhoto and Laranjeira, 2007). , silvopasture) or woodlands will, like conversion from arable land, depend upon the biodiversity value of the original grassland. An intensively managed monoculture of Italian rye grass (Lolium perenne) for example, will almost certainly gain from planting trees for silvopasture or woodland whereas a species-rich chalk grassland will undoubtedly suffer a reduction of biodiversity.

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