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By Christoph Engel, Wolf Singer

Specialists speak about the consequences of the methods people succeed in judgements throughout the unsleeping and unconscious processing of knowledge.

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Extra resources for Better Than Conscious?: Decision Making, the Human Mind, and Implications For Institutions (Strungmann Forum Reports)

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A response is emitted whenever the random walk reaches one of two response thresholds. Evidence reviewed in the present chapter suggests that all stages of the model can begin to operate in the absence of consciousness. Conscious and Nonconscious Processes 27 computation, a key question is: Which of the model’s mechanisms can operate under subliminal conditions, and which cannot? Subliminal Perception Extensive research has demonstrated that a subliminal masked stimulus can be processed at the perceptual level.

In statistical jargon, the game is NP-hard. No one could just calculate best responses. The legal example of guilt determination epitomizes secondary goals which are, metaphorically speaking, measured in a different normative currency. Society is not content with judges merely reaching materially acceptable decisions. We want them to give reasons that the defendant can understand. We want them to demonstrate to the public at large that the legal system works properly. We want them to expose themselves to peer review by the upper courts and the wider legal community.

Goitein, and Z. Shapira. 1981. Subjected expected utility. A model of decision-making. J. Am. Soc. Info. Sci. 32:391–399. Friedman, M. 1953. Essays in Positive Economics. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. , P. M. Todd, and ABC Research Group. 1999. Simple Heuristics that Make Us Smart. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Glimcher, P. W. 2003. Decisions, Uncertainty, and the Brain: The Science of Neuroeconomics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Glöckner, A. 2007. Does intuition beat fast and frugal heuristics?

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