Download Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of by Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.) PDF
By Elizabeth Closs Traugott (Ed.), Bernd Heine (Ed.)
The research of grammaticalization increases a few basic theoretical concerns bearing on the relation of langue and parole, creativity and automated coding, synchrony and diachrony, categoriality and continua, typological features and language-specific varieties, etc., and for that reason demanding situations many of the uncomplicated tenets of 20th century linguistics.This two-volume paintings offers a few various theoretical viewpoints on grammaticalization and offers insights into the genesis, improvement, and association of grammatical different types in a couple of language world-wide, with specific awareness to morphosyntactic and semantic-pragmatic issues.
The papers in quantity I are divided into sections, the 1st inquisitive about common strategy, and the second one with problems with directionality. these in quantity II are divided into 5 sections: verbal constitution, argument constitution, subordination, modality, and a number of paths of grammaticalization.
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Additional info for Approaches to Grammaticalization, Volume II: Types of Grammatical Markers
Phon. process cond'd by stem: 4. Lexical conditioning: 5. Conditions stem change: N= 0;HorS=l;Y =2 N = 1; Y = 0 N = 0; Y = 1 N = 0; Y = 2 N = 0; T or S= 1; V o r C = 2 The numerical values are chosen so that a higher degree of grammaticization will be reflected in a higher score. Thus, for each variable, the higher value indicates greater grammaticization, with the following justification. Assuming that grams develop from free lexical items, those that can be and are written bound are more grammaticized than those that are not, with hyphenated and variable representation assigned an intermediate value.
Since root possibility also encompasses social enabling conditions, it usually expresses permission also (see examples (6) and (7) above). In English, the permission and root possibility senses of can (and also may) developed out of the earlier ability sense. Thus we catergorize future grams with a root possibility sense as belonging to FUTAGE 2. Our database contains only two future grams with root possibility uses, in Tanga and Trukese, and in the latter case, the root possibility sense occurs only in the negative.
6 We predict a high degree of formal grammaticization for general perfectives and imperfectives because these meanings themselves evolve from more specific meanings through a long process (see Bybee and Dahl, 1989). We return in section 7 to a test of the hypothesis that aspectual futures have the expression properties of grams that have undergone a long evolution. For the moment, we simply display the distribution of expression types for aspectual vs. nonaspectual futures in Table 1, where the numbers indicate the percentage of 22 JOAN L.