Download Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and by Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on PDF

By Institute of Medicine, Board on Global Health, Forum on Microbial Threats, Alison Mack, David A. Relman, Eileen R. Choffnes

Years of utilizing, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and different antimicrobial medicines has resulted in the emergence of multidrug-resistant 'superbugs.' The IOM's discussion board on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to debate the character and resources of drug-resistant pathogens, the results for worldwide future health, and the techniques to reduce the present and destiny influence of those superbugs.

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SOURCE: ECDC and EMEA (2009). Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. 4 1,000,000 900,000 800,000 700,000 600,000 500,000 400,000 300,000 200,000 100,000 Number of infections due to multidrug-resistant bacteria FIGURE WO-10 Economic burden of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria: nomogram for in-hospital costs. eps bitmaps with some vector type & masks SOURCE: ECDC and EMEA (2009). , 2010). To control for confounding factors among patient populations that can be measured, researchers use regression or other statistical analyses of randomly sampled populations.

Word=transformation [accessed June 16, 2010]). 13 Chromosomally located gene clusters that encode phage-linked integrases and conjugation proteins as well as other genes associated with an observable phenotype, such as virulence or symbiosis. html [accessed June 16, 2010]). Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and Novel Intervention Strategies: Workshop Summary WORKSHOP OVERVIEW 19 FIGURE WO-9 Transfer of an integrative conjugative element.

2008a; Tenover and Hughes, 1996; WHO, 2001a), recommends preserving the effectiveness of existing antimicrobials as long as possible while encouraging the development of new classes of antimicrobials and alternative therapeutic strategies to address infectious diseases. ” Preserving Antimicrobial Effectiveness Investigators and policy makers generally agree upon at least three key steps that must be taken in order to prevent the development and spread of resistance to existing and future antimicrobials: (1) limit their use, (2) discourage their misuse, and (3) reduce the burden of infectious disease through preventive hygiene and infection control practices (ICIUM, 2004a, 2004b; Weinstein, 2001).

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