Download An Introduction to Soil Mechanics and Foundations by C. R. Scott B.A., M.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. (auth.) PDF

By C. R. Scott B.A., M.I.C.E., M.I.Struct.E. (auth.)

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This is found to be a function of (a) the water content (b) the compactive effort applied to the soil, and (c) the nature of the soil. 37 The British Standard compaction tests: In these tests, a sample of soil is compacted, using a standard compactive effort, into a mould whose volume is 9·44 x I 0- 4 m 3 {a\i- ft 3 ). The soil in the mould is weighed, the water content is measured, and from these measurements the dry density of the soil is calculated. The test is repeated several times with gradually increasing water contents, until the whole of the relevant range of water content has been covered.

This results in some loss of shear strength. 1] as the ratio the shear strength of the undisturbed soil the shear strength of the remoulded soil This ratio may be up to about 8 for normally sensitive soils, but may be very much more (perhaps over 100) for very sensitive or 'quick' clays. In time, diffusion begins to re-establish some of the broken bonds, and there is a gradual regaining of strength. This is known as thixotropy. The loss of strength resulting from reorientation of the soil particles is, however, irrecoverable, as is much of that due to broken bonds.

The black colour, at least in some cases, is due to the presence of nontronite, a montmorillonite in which the predominant cation is Fe 3 +. In many cases, both red clays and black cotton soils have been formed on precisely the same rocks. The red clays have been formed in areas of good drainage on the steeper slopes, while the black cotton soils occur in areas of poor drainage on the hill tops. Under temperate conditions, soils rich in montmorillonite have generally been formed as a result of the weathering of volcanic ash in situ.

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