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By A. J. Ede

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Extra info for An Introduction to Heat Transfer Principles and Calculations

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No general, exact solution is available, but a useful approximate RADIATION 25 equation has been derived. Let the area, temperature and emissivity of the body be Al9 Tx and eu respectively, and those of the enclosure A2,T2 and ε2. Then the net heat flux from the body is given approxi­ mately by This is known as Christiansen's equation. If the enclosure is in­ finitely large (A2->oo) or if its surface is black (ε2->1), the expression reduces to the simpler form s^iT^ — T24) given earlier. Christian­ sen's equation is exact for coaxial cylinders and concentric spheres.

CHAPTER 3 CONDUCTION THE absorption of radiation by solid materials is usually so rapid and complete that, within such bodies, the considerations of the last chapter have little relevance; the only effective mode of heat transfer is conduction. The same is true of most liquids, and even with gases there are circumstances where conduction is of comparable im­ portance to radiation. The present chapter is concerned with con­ duction in solids and stationary fluids. The further considerations which arise when conduction takes place in a fluid in motion will be dealt with in subsequent chapters.

For multiple layers and for surface heat transfer coefficients the resistance method may be used, provided account is taken of the change of surface area with radius. It may readily be shown that, for a composite cylindrical layer having n parts, with conductivities k1 . . kn, radii rx . . rn+1, with internal and external fluid tem­ peratures θ' and 0", and heat transfer coefficients h and h'\ the heat transfer for a length / of the layer is [H/T] q= 2πΙ(θ'-θ") (l/rlh') + {loge(r2/r1)}lkl+ . .

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