Download A Superfluid Universe by Kerson Huang PDF

By Kerson Huang

This fascinating e-book offers the actual and mathematical heritage for a thought describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish power and darkish topic come up. proposing a singular concept spanning many various fields in physics, the most important strategies in each one box are introduced.The reader is barely anticipated to grasp the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box conception and normal relativity to discover this attention-grabbing new version of darkish subject and darkish strength as elements of a cosmic superfluid.

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28) bμ = μνλρ ∂ν Bλρ 2 where the generalized potential is the antisymmetric tensor Bλρ . It is determined only up to gauge transformations, and one can impose the “Lorentz gauge” ∂μ Bμν = 0 plus Bk0 = 0 [19] to reduce the number of independent components of Bμν to one. com by LA TROBE UNIVERSITY on 10/29/16. For personal use only. where S0 describes the potential flow of the superfluid, and S1 specifically describes the quantized vorticity. 28) into S1 , and the second term comes from a term −dG/dt, where G is the generator of the canonical transformation, needed to preserve the canonical form of the equations of motion.

Even the ubiquitous electrons and photons enter the picture via macroscopic currents. Thus, the microscopic Lagrangian density should be replaced by a macroscopic one. We can replace Z μ by a matter current density J μ , arising from bulk matter resulting from the decay of the Z particle into electrons, neutrinos and quarks. The term Z μ Zμ will be neglected, because its average value in the vacuum should be zero. 9). The reason is under a scale change they undergo renormalization, as we shall discuss in more detail in the next chapter.

7 Velocity distribution in quantum turbulence in superfluid helium. It deviates from the Gaussian distribution of classical turbulence in that it has a powerlaw tail coming from vortex reconnections. From [11]. cross themselves, because of Kelvin’s theorem in the classical case, and reconnections in the quantum case. As far as the power spectrum is concerned, such vortex line belongs to the universal class of random self-avoiding walk (SAW), which features an exponent of 5/3, and also applies to a polymer chain [10].

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